D'après l'huile sur 15 toiles "Winter Timber"
de David Hockney © (2009)
28 Respondit Thomas, et dixit ei: Dominus meus et Deus meus.
29 Dixit ei Jesus: Quia vidisti me, Thoma, credidisti: beati qui non viderunt, et crediderunt.
Biblia Vulgata, Ioannes 20:28-29
28 Thomas lui répondit : Mon Seigneur et mon Dieu !
29 Parce que tu m'as vu, tu crois ! lui dit Jésus. Heureux ceux qui croient sans avoir vu.
Jean 20 : 28-29 (La Bible du Semeur)
28 And Thomas answered and said unto him, My LORD and my God.
29 Jesus saith unto him, Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed.
John 20:28-29 (King James Version)
D'après l'huile sur toile "Garrowby Hill"
de David Hockney © (1998)
Titre de cet article : "To Believe or not to Believe, that is the question !" ("Croire ou ne pas Croire, c'est là la question !"), inspiré du début du monologue d'Hamlet : "To be, or not to be, that is the question." ("Être, ou ne pas être, c’est là la question."), dans la pièce de William Shakespeare : "Hamlet", acte 3 scène 1, publiée en 1603.
Armoiries royales du Royaume Uni
Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom
Devise : "Dieu et mon droit"
"Honi soit qui mal y pense", devise de l'Ordre de la Jarretière
"Nobilissime Ordre de la Jarretière" (Most Noble Order of the Garter)
Poor soul, the center of my sinful earth,
[Thrall to]* these rebel pow'rs that thee array,
Why dost thou pine within and suffer dearth,
Painting thy outward walls so costly gay?
Why so large cost, having so short a lease,
Dost thou upon thy fading mansion spend?
Shall worms, inheritors of this excess,
Eat up thy charge? Is this thy body’s end?
Then, soul, live thou upon thy servant’s loss,
And let that pine to aggravate thy store;
Buy terms divine in selling hours of dross;
Within be fed, without be rich no more.
So shalt thou feed on death, that feeds on men,
And death once dead, there’s no more dying then.
* "Thrall to": due to a printer's error in the earliest edition of the Sonnets, no one knows what Shakespeare intended for the first two syllables of line 2. The guesses editors have made over the centuries include "Thrall to", "Hemm'd by", "Fool'd by", "Foil'd by", and "Feeding".
"The Risen Christ with the Two Marys
in the Garden of Joseph of Arimathea"
Le Christ Ressuscité avec les 2 Marie
dans le Jardin de Joseph d'Arimathie (1897)
William Hobman "Holman" Hunt
Traduction en français du Sonnet 146
"Pauvre âme, centre de ma terre pécheresse, jouet des puissances rebelles qui t’enveloppent, pourquoi pâtis-tu intérieurement et te laisses-tu dépérir, en peignant tes murs extérieurs de si coûteuses couleurs ?
Pourquoi, ayant un loyer si court, fais-tu de si grandes dépenses pour ta demeure éphémère ? Est-ce pour que les vers, héritiers de ce superflu, mangent à tes frais ? La fin de ton corps est-elle la tienne ?
Âme, vis donc aux dépens de ton esclave, et laisse-le languir pour augmenter tes trésors. Achète la durée divine en vendant des heures de poussière. Nourris-toi au dedans, et ne t’enrichis plus au dehors.
Ainsi tu te nourriras de la mort qui se nourrit des hommes ; et, la mort une fois morte, tu n’auras plus rien de mortel."
Les exégètes de William Shakespeare, et, en particulier, de ce sonnet 146, invitent à la comparaison avec le Psaume 146 de la Vulgate (Psalmus 146, "Liber Psalmorum", "Vetus Testamentum"), c'est-à-dire le Psaume 147, versets 1 à 11, de l'Ancien Testament.
"Rien ici-bas ne me rassasie"
"Le Triomphe des Innocents" (1883)
Sonnet 146 en anglais moderne
My poor soul, you’re the very center of this sinful world, my body, which rebels against you. Why do you starve yourself inside me and suffer from a shortage of supplies while you dress your outside in such expensive finery? Why do you spend so much on your aging body when you get to occupy it for such a short time? All of this expenditure on a body that is eventually going to be eaten by the worms—do you want what you spend to be devoured by worms? Is this what your body was intended for? In that case, soul, feed yourself by starving your body; let it pine for food while you accumulate the riches. Buy time in heaven by giving up worthless time wasted on earth. Feed your inner self; let your body be poor. By starving your body, you will eat up death, which eats up men, and once death is dead, there’s no more dying then.
The speaker addresses this poem to his soul, asking it in the first stanza why it, the center of his "sinful earth" (that is, his body), endures misery within his body while he is so concerned with maintaining its "paint[ed]" outward appearance--that is, why his soul allows his exterior vanity to wound its interior life. He asks his soul why, since it will not spend long in the body ("having so short a lease" in the "fading mansion"), it spends "so large cost" to decorate it, and he asks whether worms shall be allowed to eat the soul's "charge" after the body is dead. In the third quatrain, the speaker exhorts his soul to concentrate on its own inward well-being at the expense of the body's outward walls ("Let that [i.e., the body] pine to aggravate [i.e., increase] thy store"). He says that the body's hours of "dross" will buy the soul "terms divine"; and admonishes the soul to be fed within, and not to be rich without. In the couplet, the speaker tells the soul that by following his advice, it will feed on death, which feeds on men and their bodies; and once it has fed on death, it will enjoy eternal life: "And death once dead, there's no more dying then."
Sonnet 146, an austerely moralizing self-exhortation to privilege the inner enrichment of the soul over the outer decoration of the body, is also the site of the most virulent textual controversy of any of Shakespeare's poem in the sequence. The way the poem is printed in its first edition, its first two lines read: Poor soule, the center of my sinfull earth, My sinfull earth these rebbel poweres that thee array.... The repetition of the phrase "my sinful earth" at the start of the second line has long been chalked up to a printer's mistake; it almost certainly could not have been Shakespeare's intention to break his meter so egregiously for the sake of such a heavy-handed repetition. (In the 1590s, any text that was to be printed had to be set into the printing press letter by letter, a painstaking and often mind-numbing process that resulted in many mistakes of this nature.) As a result, critics have debated for what seems the better part of four centuries over what the "missing" text might have been. "Trapp'd by these rebel powers"? "Ring'd" by them? "Fenced"? "Foil'd"? "Pressed with"? Possible alternatives are literally endless; most recent editors of the sonnets have avoided conjecture for that very reason.
Apart from the textual controversy, Sonnet 146 presents the relatively simple idea that the body exists at the expense of the soul, so that decorating or adorning the body, or even worrying about its beauty, can only be accomplished at the soul's expense. The speaker of this sonnet feels trapped by his preoccupation with his outward appearance, and urges himself--by addressing his neglected soul, which he concedes has the decision-making power over the body--to neglect the body as a way to enrich the soul and help it toward heaven ("Buy terms divine in selling hours of dross"). In this sense, Sonnet 146 is one of comparatively few sonnets to strike a piously religious tone: in its overt concern with heaven, asceticism, and the progress of the soul, it is quite at odds with many of the other sonnets, which yearn for and celebrate sensory beauty and aesthetic pleasure.
Testament original de William Shakespeare
"Vicesimo Quinto die Januarii Martii Anno Regni Domini nostri Jacobi nucn Regis Angliae etc decimo quarto & Scotie xlixo Annoque Domini 1616
Testamentum Willemi Shackspeare
In the name of god Amen I William Shackspeare of Stratford upon Avon in the countrie of Warr’ gent in perfect health and memorie god by praysed doe make and Ordayne this my last will and testament in manner and forme followeing that ys to saye first I Comend my Soule into the hands of god my Creator hoping and assuredlie beleeving through thonelie merittes of Jesus Christe my Saviour to be made partaker of lyfe everlastinge And my bodye to the Earthe whereof yt ys made.
Item: I Gyve and bequeath unto my sonne in Law and Daughter Judyth One Hundred and fyftie pounds of lawfull English money to be paied unto her in manner and forme follewing That ys to saye One Hundred Poundes in discharge of her marriage porcion within one yeare after my deceas with consideracion after the Rate of twoe shillinges in the pound for soe long tyme as the same shalbe unpaid unto her after my deceas & the fyftie pounds Residewe therof upon her surrendering of or gyving of such sufficient securitie as the overseers of this my will shall like of to Surrender or graunte All her estate and Right that shall discend or come unto her after my deceas or that she nowe hath of in or to one Copiehold tenemente with theappertenances lyeing & being in Stratford upon Avon aforesaied in the saide countie of warr’ being parcell or holden of the mannor of Rowington unto my daughter Susanna Hall and her heires for ever.
Item I gyve and bequeath unto my saied Daughter Judyth One Hundred and ffyftie Poundes more if shee or Anie issue of her bodie Lyvinge att thend of three yeares next ensueing the daie of the date of this my will during which tyme my executors to paie her consideracion from my deceas according to the Rate afore saied. And if she dye within the saied terme without issue of her bodye then my will ys and and I doe gyve and bequeath One Hundred Poundes therof to my Neece Eliabeth Hall and ffiftie Poundes to be sett fourth by my executors during the lief of my Sister Johane Harte and the use and proffitt therof cominge shalbe payed to my saied Sister Jone and after her deceas the saied L li shall Remaine Amongst the childredn of my saied Sister Equallie to be devided Amongst them. But if my saied daughter Judith be lyving att thend of the saeid three yeares or anie issue of her bodye then my will ys and soe I devise and bequeath the saied Hundred and ffyftie poundes to be sett out by my executors and overseers for the best benefit of her and her issue and the stock not to be paied unto her soe long as she shalbe marryed and Covert Baron by my executors and overseers but my will ys that she shall have the consideracion yearelie paied unto her during her lief and after her deceas the saied stock and condieracion to bee paid to her children if she have Anie and if not to her executors or Assignes she lyving the saied terme after my deceas provided that if such husbond as she shall att thend of the saied three yeares by marryed unto or attain after doe sufficiently Assure unto her and thissue of her bodie landes answereable to the portion gyven unto her and to be adjudged soe by my executors and overseers then my will ys that the saied CL li shalbe paied to such husbond as shall make such assurance to his owne use.
Item: I gyve and bequeath unto my saied sister Jone XX li and all my wearing Apprell to be paied and delivered within one yeare after my deceas. And I doe will and devise unto her the house with thappurtenances in Stratford where in she dwelleth for her naturall lief under the yearelie Rent of xiid
Item: I gyve and bequeath unto her three sonnes William Hart-Hart and Michaell Harte ffyve pounds A peece to be payed within one yeare after my decease to be sett out for her within one yeare after my deceas by my executors with thadvise and direccons of my overseers for her best proffitt untill her marriage and then the same with the increase thereof to be paied unto her .
Item I gyve and bequath unto her the said Elizabeth Hall All my Plate (except my brodsilver and gilt bole) that I now have att the date of this my will.
Item: I gyve and bequeath unto the Poore of Stratford aforesaied tenn poundes; to Mr Thomas Combe my Sword; to Thomas Russell Esquier ffyve poundes and to ffrauncis collins of the Borough of Warr’ in the countie of Warr’ gent. thriteene poundes Sixe shillinges and Eight pence to be paied within one yeare after my deceas.
Item: I gyve and bequeath to mr richard Hamlett Sadler Tyler thelder XXVIs VIIId to buy him A Ringe; to William Raynoldes gent XXVIs VIIId to buy him a Ringe; to my godson William Walker XXVIs VIIId in gold and to my ffellowes John Hemynges, Richard Burbage and Heny Cundell XXVIs VIIId A peece to buy them Ringes.
Item: I Gyve Will Bequeth and Devise unto my Daughter Susanna Hall for better enabling of her to performe this my will and towardes the performans thereof All that Capitall Messuage or tenemente with thappertenaces in Stratford aforesaid called the newe plase wherein I now Dwell and two messuags or tenementes with thappurtenances scituat lyeing and being in Henley Streete within the borough of Stratford aforesaied. And all my barnes, stables, Orchardes, gardens, landes, tenementes and herediaments whatsoever scituat lyeing and being or to be had receyved, perceyved or taken within the townes and Hamletts, villages, ffieldes and groundes of Stratford upon Avon, Oldstratford, Bushopton and Welcombe or in anie of them in the saied countie of warr And alsoe All that Messuage or tenemente with thappurtenances wherein one John Robinson dwelleth, scituat, lyeing and being in the blackfriers in London nere the Wardrobe and all other my landes tenementes and hereditamentes whatsoever. To Have and to hold All and singular the saied premisses with their Appurtenances unto the saied Susanna Hall for and during the terme of her naturall lief and after her deceas to the first sonne of her bodie lawfullie yssueing and to the heiries Males of the bodie of the saied Second Sonne lawfullie yssyeinge and for defalt of such heires Males of the bodie of the saied third sonne lawfullie yssye ing And for defalt of such issue the same soe to be Reamine to the ffourth sonne , ffythe, sixte and seaventh sonnes of her bodie lawfullie issueing one after Another and and to the heires Males of the bodies of the saied ffourth, ffythe, Sixte and Seaventh sonnes lawfullie yssueing in such mamer as yt ys before Lymitted to be and remaine to the first, second and third Sonns of her bodie and to their heires males. And for defalt of such issue the saied premisses to be and Remaine to my sayed Neede Hall and the heires Males of her bodie Lawfully yssueing for default of…such issue to my daughter Judith and the heires of me the saied William Sahckspere for ever.
Item: I gyve unto my wief my second best bed with the furniture; Item I gyve and bequeath to my saied daughter Judith my broad silver gilt bole.
All the rest of my goodes Chattels, Leases, plate, jewles and Household stuffe whatsoever after my dettes and Legasies paied and my funerall expences discharged, I gyve devise and bequeath to my Sonne in Lawe John Hall gent and my daughter Susanna his wief whom I ordaine and make executors of this my Last will and testament. And I doe intreat and Appoint the saied Thomas Russell Esquier and ffrauncis Collins gent to be overseers herof And doe Revoke All former wills and publishe this to be my last will and testament. In witnes whereof I have hereunto put my Seale hand the Daie and Yeare first above Written.
Witness to the publishing hereof: Fra: Collyns, Juilyus Shawe, John Robinson, Hamnet Sadler, Robert Whattcott.
By me William Shakespeare
Probatum coram Magistro Williamo Byrde legum doctore Commissario etc xxiido die mensis Junii Anno domini 1616 Juramento Jahannis Hall unius executorum etc. Cui etc de bene etc Jurati Reservata potestate etc Sussane Hall alteri executorum etc cum venerit etc petitur.
Fragment du Testament original de Shakespeare
Au début de son testament, traduit ci-dessous en anglais moderne, Shakespeare dit : "... C'est-à-dire, d'abord, que je remets mon âme entre les mains de Dieu, mon Créateur, espérant et assurément croyant, par les mérites de Jésus-Christ, mon Sauveur, afin d' être participant à la vie éternelle, ..."
"In the name of God, I William Shakespeare...God be praised, do make and ordain this, my last will and testament in manner and form following. That is to say, first I commend my soul into the hands of God my Creator, hoping and assuredly believing, through the merits of Jesus Christ, my saviour, to be made partaker of eternal life, and my body to the earth whereof it is made."
Portrait "Cobbe" de Shakespeare
Dans le calendrier julien :
probablement né le 23 avril 1564 à Stratford-upon-Avon
baptisé le 26 avril 1564
mort le 23 avril 1616 à Stratford-upon-Avon
(le 3 mai 1616 dans le calendrier grégorien)
Le portrait Cobbe, en anglais "Cobbe portrait", est exposé à "Hatchlands Park" (Surrey - Angleterre), une propriété du "National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty" (ou "National Trust", ou "NT").
Ce portrait est ainsi appelé car il a appartenu à Monseigneur Charles Cobbe (1686–1765), originaire de Swarraton, un petit village dans la ville de Winchester ("City of Winchester", Hampshire - Angleterre). Il a été Archevêque de Dublin de 1743 à 1765, et Primat d'Irlande.
Le tableau original n'a été identifié qu'en 2006, dans la collection de la famille anglo-irlandaise Cobbe, et il avait été jusqu'alors totalement inconnu du monde.
Dans sa partie supérieure, le tableau porte l'inscription latine : "Principum amicitias !" ("Les amitiés des Princes", ou "Les alliances des Princes", ou "(De) chefs ligués" ; en anglais : "The Friendships of Princes!"). Elle ferait allusion au début d'un vers d'Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus) dans "Odes", Livre II, Ode 1 : "À Gaius Asinius Pollion" (Odes, en latin : "Carmina", en anglais : "The Odes").